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Using Chicago Style: Wesley Seminary Students: Elements of a Citation


  • Author (or editor) is the first element in both notes and bibliography entries.
  • Use the author's name as it appears on the title page or article heading.
  • If there is no author, the first element of the citation is the article title.
  • In full notes, type all author names in direct order, e.g., Charles Schultz.
  • When initials are part of a name, separate with a space, e.g., C. S. Lewis.
  • In shortened notes, type only author(s) last names, e.g., Schultz and Brown.
  • In a bibliography reference, invert the first author's name (Schultz, Charles); additional author names are in direct order (Ron Brown).
Authors Full Notes Bibliography
1 Charles Schultz. Schultz, Charles.
2 Charles Schultz and Ron Brown. Schultz, Charles, and Ron Brown.
3 Charles Schultz, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt. Schultz, Charles, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt.
4 + Charles Schultz et al. Include all names.


  • Capitalization:  Use CMS headline style for titles and subtitles of books and articles: Capitalize first and last words and other major words.
  • Italics:  Italicize book titles and journal names.
  • Question Marks:
    • If a title ends in a question mark, do not use a colon before the subtitle.
    • if an article title ends with a question mark, do not insert a period after the quotation mark.
  • Quotation Marks 
    • Enclose article titles in quotation marks. If an article title includes a quotation, enclose the quotation in single quotes, with double quotes around the entire article title.
  • Shortening titles:  Shorten a book or article title that is 5 or more words in a note, but do not shorten journal titles. Acceptable ways of shortening titles:
  • Omit the initial article (A, The).
  • Include only key words from the title. 
Examples of Shortened Titles
Original Title Shortened Title
Men and Events; Historical Essays Men and Events
The Empire of the Seas: A Biography of Rear 
 Admiral Robert Wilson Shufeldt, USN
Empire of the Seas
Wordmark Encyclopedia of the Nations Encyclopedia of Nations


  • Note the edition of a source in a note or reference if it is not the first edition;  that is, if the source is a numbered edition, or if the title page reads, "revised edition."

  • Numbered editions are abbreviated as shown below.

  • A revised edition is abbreviated as "rev. ed." in the note, since elements are separated by commas, and "Rev. ed." in the bibliography since elements end in periods.

         Sample Note: 

                       23. Mack, Daniel. Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review
             3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002. 

        Sample Bib:

            Mack, Daniel. Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review. 3rd ed. St. 

                       Louis: Mosby, 2002.

Page Numbers

Notes:  In citing a passage or quotation, provide the page number(s) in the note.  For e-resources with no page numbers or with page numbers that vary by text size, provide a chapter number, section number, or other location information.
  • Books:  Provide page numbers when referring to a chapter or section.
  • Journal and Magazine articles:  Provide start and end pages.
  • Newspaper articles:  No page numbers required.
  • Electronic sources without page numbers (including e-books with variable page numbers due to text size):  Provide identifying information, e.g., chapter number, paragraph number, heading or section title.

Journals: Volume Number, Issue, Page Numbers

  • Journals typically have a volume number for every year of publication.  For example, all issues of Art Education published in 2011 are part of Volume 64.  Each issue published within a year (or within a volume) is numbered sequentially, Issue 1, 2.... 
  • Page numbering:  Some journals begin each issue with page 1, while others use continuous pagination: if Issue 1 ends on page 78, Issue 2 begins on page 79. 
  • The table below identifies the elements of an article citation. For more information, refer to the pages in this guide, Articles (Print) and Articles (Electronic).
Information         Included in a Citation?
Volume number Always
Issue number "The issue number should be recorded even if pagination is continuous throughout a volume or when a month or season precedes the year." See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.171: Journal volume, issue, and date
Page numbers If referencing a passage, cite the relevant page number(s) only. If referencing an entire article, cite the entire page range. See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.174: Journal page references.

Online Journal

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in your citation if one is listed. A DOI, appended to the address,, links directly to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include the access date only if required by your professor.

Use CrossRef's Free DOI Lookup to find out if your resource has been assigned a DOI.

Sample Note:
             1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010,
Sample Bib:
 Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving
              Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50.
              Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.


Sample Note:

12. Pamela Paul, "The Playground Gets Even Tougher," New York Times, October 10, 2010, 12, Academic Search Complete (54317717). 

Sample Bib:

Paul, Pamela. "The Playground Gets Even Tougher." New York Times, October 10, 2010. Academic Search Complete (54317717). 

Publication Date


  • Use the most recent date on the copyright page.  If it has no date, use  "n.d."
  • If you have an idea of the date, enclose it in square brackets, e.g., [1951].

Magazines:   Use the most complete date available on the cover or table of contents.

Place of Publication

  • The place of publication is usually found on the book's title page.  If more than one city is listed, use the first.
  • If a city is not well known, include the state, province, or country.  Use state postal codes and abbreviate country/province as in Section 10.32 of CMS.
  • Make sure to use a city's English name, e.g., "Rome" not "Roma."
  • If no place is listed, use "n.p." in a note and "N.p." in a bibliography.


  • The publisher's name is found on the title page.
  • Omit initial articles from publisher names like A, An, and The.
  • Omit common corporate designations like Inc., Ltd., Co., and Publishing Co., but retain special designations like Sons, Brothers, etc.
  • Omit Press if doing so is not confusing. For example, use Abingdon rather than Abingdon Press but do not omit Press from Free Press.  Also, do not omit Press from a university press name (e.g., Ohio University Press).
  • Does the publisher name include and or &?  Use either but be consistent.
  • Is the publisher's name foreign?  Do not translate.
  • Is the publisher unknown (as with an older work)?  Use place and date only.
  • If the publisher's parent company appears on the title page, do not include it.