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- Insert a number when a citation is needed, preferably at the end of a sentence or clause or following quotation marks, if any. Format the number as a superscript (above the line). To format a number as superscript in Microsoft Word:
- Type the note number, select it, then right-click.
- Choose the Font option from the list.
- Under Effects, choose Superscript.)
- In the footnotes or endnotes, do not format the note number as superscript. See the videos embedded in the Formatting Your Paper tab for information on formatting Chicago Style Papers in Microsoft Word (PC and Mac).
- Always number notes consecutively, starting with 1. Numbers are followed by a period and a space. For more information, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.20: Basic structure of a note.
- "In works with only a selected list of works consulted, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited; subsequent citations need only include a short form." See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.19. "For a detailed discussion of notes, see Section 14.24-60. For shortened references, see 14.29-36."
- CMOS 17th Edition: Changes to use of Ibid. "In a departure from previous editions, Chicago discourages the use of ibid. in favor of shortened citations" as found in Section 14.29.
- If you choose to include a comment in a note, include it after the citation. Example: "5. Mitchell, People in Organizations, 25. This is the text of my comment." CMOS offers an additional example in Section 14.39, Substantive notes.
- CMOS also allows writers to include several citations in one note. See Section 14.57 for a detailed explanation and example.