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OCLS Tutorials: Chicago Style

 

 


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CHICAGO STYLE GUIDE

 


Welcome to the Chicago Style Guide! 

 

To navigate to the different sections use the tabs above. 

 

You can bookmark this page for quick access

 

The Basics

Introduction to Chicago Style and overview of the notes/bibliography system components

Formatting Your Paper

Margins, indents, spacing, etc.

Notes and Bibliographies

Formatting these sections

Elements of a Citation

Rules for each element of the citation

Types of Sources

Citation examples for

print books

e-books

print articles

electronic articles

web pages

miscellaneous sources

Quotations

In-text citations, run-in (short), and block (long) quotes

Resources

Help resources, printable resources, and purchase links

 

 

Special Thanks

 

A heartfelt thank-you goes out to the librarians at Lorain College in Ohio, who allowed IWU to adapt this library guide from theirs.

 

 


What is Chicago Style?

 

The Chicago Manual of Style, first published in 1906, has long been a standard reference book for writers, particularly those in the disciplines of literature, history, and the arts. 
 
This library guide covers the Notes and Bibliography System of Chicago Style, often used by those in the humanities and history. It does not include the Author-Date System, frequently used in the natural, physical and social sciences. Be sure you know which system your professor requires.
 
If you have a question not answered in this guide, ask your instructor, check with a librarian, refer to the print version of the Chicago Manual of Style at a local library, or use the Chicago Manual of Style Online for more detailed information.

 

  
Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition  Chicago Manual of Style
  17th Edition
 
  Reference Section
  808.027 UN3C 2017
 
 
 
 

What is the Notes/Bibliography System?

 

Requirements of the Notes and Bibliography style:

 

  • Include an alphabetized bibliography of full citations for each source. An example of a bibliography citation is shown at the bottom right of this page.  In alphabetizing bibliography entries, use the first element of the citation, usually the author's last name. For some, the first element is the title. When alphabetizing by title, ignore initial articles (A, An, The).

 

  • Insert a number in each place in your paper that references a source. This number is usually placed at the end of the sentence that discusses or quotes the source. Format this number as a superscript (above the line, like the number one that follows this¹).

 

  • For each numbered reference in your text, include a note. You may use footnotes (a numbered list of citations at the bottom of the page where the reference appears) or endnotes (a page after the body of the paper that lists all of the references in the entire paper).  

 

Full notes or shortened?  You might use shortened notes for two reasons:
 
  • When a bibliography is required, your professor might indicate that you may use shortened citations for all notes.

 

  • When a bibligoraphy is not required, your professor might indicate that you may use a full citation in a note when referring to a source for the first time. If you refer to a source more than once, you may use a shortened citation for the subsequent notes. The short form of a note should always include the author(s) last name(s), the title (shortened if it exceeds four words), and the page(s) to which you are referring.

 

 

 

Components of Notes and Bibliography Style

 

Insert a superscript number after a sentence including information from a source. Include a corresponding citation in a footnote or endnote and a full citation in the Bibliography. 
 
Chicago Style: Superscript reference number in text
 
 
Depending on the preference of your professor, you may include, on the Notes page, a full citation or a shortened citation.  The image below displays a full citation. 
 
Chicago Style: Full citation in footnote
 
 
Shortened citations may be used (1) in a work with no bibliography when citing a source covered earlier with a full citation or (2) in a work that requires a bibliography for all notes. 
 
Chicago Style: Shortened Citation in Footnote
 
 
All citations are included in a bibliography. Entries are alphabetized by the first word. Note that the publication information is formatted differently than in a full note citation.
 
Chicago Style: Bibliography
 
 
 

Formatting Your Paper

 

How to Format Your Paper

Margins, Spacing, Etc.

 

 

 

 


How to Format Your Paper

 

 

Students are welcome to use this Chicago Style Paper Template (Microsoft Word Document). Please make sure that you check all Chicago Style format, footnotes, shortened notes, Bibliography entries, and other style elements against the Chicago Manual of Style.


The Chicago Manual of Style provides formatting information for a manuscript, but does not address formatting of student papers. This page provides basic information about components/format of the CMS Notes-Bibliography system.


For additional help and examples, use the 
Chicago Manual of Style Online (log in required for Off Campus access).


Always find out whether your instructor has specific requirements when you are writing a paper. Basic elements of a paper using Chicago style are as follows:

  • A title page that contains:
  • the title of your paper
  • your name
  • the class, the professor, and the date.
  • Body of the paper.
  • Footnotes on pages where references occur OR an Endnotes page on a new page after the body of the paper. To create a footnote in Microsoft Word press ATL + CTRL + F on your keyboard.
  • A Bibliography. Off Campus Library Services has been told that Wesley Seminary students will use the Notes and Bibliography Style (footnotes on pages and a Bibliography following the paper's body).


In addition, OCLS recommends that students look closely at Western Oregon University's Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition information, at 
https://research.wou.edu/chicago 

Under the Home button, click on Paper Formatting.


If you have questions about Chicago Style, please contact Off Campus Library Services (OCLS) at Indiana Wesleyan University. Call 1-800-521-1848 or email 
ocls@indwes.edu

 

 

Margins, Spacing, Etc.

 

Margins, Indents

  • Leave uniform margins of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm.) at the top, bottom, left and right of every page.
  • Indent all paragraphs in the body of the paper 1/2".
  • Indent notes (footnotes or endnotes) 1/2".
  • Use a hanging indent of 1/2" for Bibliography entries.
  • Block indent long quotations 1/2".

 

Spacing

  • Double-space the body of the paper.
  • Double-space block quotes.
  • Single-space each note (whether using endnotes or footnotes) and bibliography, but double-space between each entry.

 

Fonts: The Chicago Manual of Style does not specify a particular font. We suggest using a readable serif font, like Times New Roman, 12 pt.
 
 
 

 

Notes-Bibliography Style Information

 

Notes

Bibliographies 

 

 

 

 


Notes

 

 

  • Insert a number when a citation is needed, preferably at the end of a sentence or clause or following quotation marks, if any. Format the number as a superscript (above the line). To format a number as superscript in Microsoft Word: Type the note number, select it, then right-click.
  • Choose the Font option from the list.
  • Under Effects, choose Superscript.)
  • In the footnotes or endnotes, do not format the note number as superscript. See the videos embedded in the Formatting Your Paper tab for information on formatting Chicago Style Papers in Microsoft Word (PC and Mac).
  • Always number notes consecutively, starting with 1. Numbers are followed by a period and a space. For more information, see the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.20: Basic structure of a note.
  • "In works with only a selected list of works consulted, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited; subsequent citations need only include a short form." See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.19. "For a detailed discussion of notes, see Section 14.24-60. For shortened references, see 14.29-36."
  • CMOS 17th Edition: Changes to use of Ibid. "In a departure from previous editions, Chicago discourages the use of ibid. in favor of shortened citations" as found in Section 14.29.  
  • If you choose to include a comment in a note, include it after the citation. Example: "5. Mitchell, People in Organizations, 25. This is the text of my comment." CMOS offers an additional example in Section 14.39, Substantive notes.
  • CMOS also allows writers to include several citations in one note. See Section 14.57 for a detailed explanation and example.

 

 

 

Bibliographies

 

 

 

 

 


Author(s)

 

  • Author (or editor) is the first element in both notes and bibliography entries.
  • Use the author's name as it appears on the title page or article heading.
  • If there is no author, the first element of the citation is the article title.
  • In full notes, type all author names in direct order, e.g., Charles Schultz.
  • When initials are part of a name, separate with a space, e.g., C. S. Lewis.
  • In shortened notes, type only author(s) last names, e.g., Schultz and Brown.
  • In a bibliography reference, invert the first author's name (Schultz, Charles); additional author names are in direct order (Ron Brown).

 

Authors

Full Notes

Bibliography

1

Charles Schultz.

Schultz, Charles.

2

Charles Schultz and Ron Brown.

Schultz, Charles, and Ron Brown.

3

Charles Schultz, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt.

Schultz, Charles, Ron Brown, and Lucy VanPelt.

4

Charles Schultz et al.

Include all names.

 

 

Titles

 

  • Capitalization:  Use CMS headline style for titles and subtitles of books and articles: Capitalize first and last words and other major words.
  • Italics:  Italicize book titles and journal names.
  • Question Marks:
    • If a title ends in a question mark, do not use a colon before the subtitle.
    • if an article title ends with a question mark, do not insert a period after the quotation mark.
  • Quotation Marks 
    • Enclose article titles in quotation marks. If an article title includes a quotation, enclose the quotation in single quotes, with double quotes around the entire article title.
  • Shortening titles:  Shorten a book or article title that is 5 or more words in a note, but do not shorten journal titles. Acceptable ways of shortening titles:
  • Omit the initial article (A, The).
  • Include only key words from the title. 

 

Original Title

Shortened Title

Men and Events; Historical Essays

Men and Events

The Empire of the Seas: A Biography of Rear 
 Admiral Robert Wilson Shufeldt, USN

Empire of the Seas

Wordmark Encyclopedia of the Nations

Encyclopedia of Nations

 

 

Edition

 

  • Note the edition of a source in a note or reference if it is not the first edition;  that is, if the source is a numbered edition, or if the title page reads, "revised edition."

  • Numbered editions are abbreviated as shown below.

  • A revised edition is abbreviated as "rev. ed." in the note, since elements are separated by commas, and "Rev. ed." in the bibliography since elements end in periods.

 

         Sample Note: 

                       23. Mack, Daniel. Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review
             3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2002. 
          

        Sample Bib:

            Mack, Daniel. Mosby's EMT-B Certification Preparation and Review. 3rd ed. St. 

                       Louis: Mosby, 2002.

 

 

Page Numbers

 

Notes:  In citing a passage or quotation, provide the page number(s) in the note.  For e-resources with no page numbers or with page numbers that vary by text size, provide a chapter number, section number, or other location information.
 
Bibliographies:
  • Books:  Provide page numbers when referring to a chapter or section.
  • Journal and Magazine articles:  Provide start and end pages.
  • Newspaper articles:  No page numbers required.
  • Electronic sources without page numbers (including e-books with variable page numbers due to text size):  Provide identifying information, e.g., chapter number, paragraph number, heading or section title.

 

 

Journals: Volume Number, Issue, Page Numbers

 

  • Journals typically have a volume number for every year of publication.  For example, all issues of Art Education published in 2011 are part of Volume 64.  Each issue published within a year (or within a volume) is numbered sequentially, Issue 1, 2.... 
  • Page numbering:  Some journals begin each issue with page 1, while others use continuous pagination: if Issue 1 ends on page 78, Issue 2 begins on page 79. 
  • The table below identifies the elements of an article citation. For more information, refer to the pages in this guide, Articles (Print) and Articles (Electronic).

 

Information        

Included in a Citation?

Volume number

Always

Issue number

"The issue number should be recorded even if pagination is continuous throughout a volume or when a month or season precedes the year." See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.171: Journal volume, issue, and date

Page numbers

If referencing a passage, cite the relevant page number(s) only. If referencing an entire article, cite the entire page range. See the Chicago Manual of Style Online Section 14.174: Journal page references.

 

 

Online Journals

 

Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in your citation if one is listed. A DOI, appended to the address, https://doi.org/10..., links directly to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include the access date only if required by your professor.

Use CrossRef's Free DOI Lookup to find out if your resource has been assigned a DOI.

 

Sample Note:
 
             1. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.
 
Sample Bib:
 
 Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving
              Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50.
              Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.
 
 
 

Databases

 

Sample Note:

12. Pamela Paul, "The Playground Gets Even Tougher," New York Times, October 10, 2010, 12, Academic Search Complete (54317717). 

Sample Bib:

Paul, Pamela. "The Playground Gets Even Tougher." New York Times, October 10, 2010. Academic Search Complete (54317717). 
 
 
 

Publication Date

 

Books:

  • Use the most recent date on the copyright page.  If it has no date, use  "n.d."
  • If you have an idea of the date, enclose it in square brackets, e.g., [1951].

 

Magazines:   Use the most complete date available on the cover or table of contents.

 

 

Place of Publication

 

  • The place of publication is usually found on the book's title page.  If more than one city is listed, use the first.
  • If a city is not well known, include the state, province, or country.  Use state postal codes and abbreviate country/province as in Section 10.32 of CMS.
  • Make sure to use a city's English name, e.g., "Rome" not "Roma."
  • If no place is listed, use "n.p." in a note and "N.p." in a bibliography.

 

 

Publisher

 

  • The publisher's name is found on the title page.
  • Omit initial articles from publisher names like A, An, and The.
  • Omit common corporate designations like Inc., Ltd., Co., and Publishing Co., but retain special designations like Sons, Brothers, etc.
  • Omit Press if doing so is not confusing. For example, use Abingdon rather than Abingdon Press but do not omit Press from Free Press.  Also, do not omit Press from a university press name (e.g., Ohio University Press).
  • Does the publisher name include and or &?  Use either but be consistent.
  • Is the publisher's name foreign?  Do not translate.
  • Is the publisher unknown (as with an older work)?  Use place and date only.
  • If the publisher's parent company appears on the title page, do not include it.
 
 

 

 


Articles (Electronic)

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

For more information about any particular element of the citation samples, e.g., if you want to know how to include and punctuate author information for items with more than one author, or for information about shortening titles, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Elements of a Citation.

If your question is not answered by the LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

Access dates are given in these examples. However, they should be used only if your instructor requires them. CMOS 17th edition does not require access dates as part of full note or bibliography formats.

Chicago Formats/Samples: Articles, Electronic (N/B)

 

 

Articles (Print)

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

For more information about any particular element of the citation samples, e.g., if you want to know how to include and punctuate author information for items with more than one author, or for information about shortening titles, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Elements of a Citation.

If your question is not answered by the LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

Chicago Formats/Samples: Articles, Print (N/B)

 

 

Books (Electronic)

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

For more information about any particular element of the citation samples, e.g., if you want to know how to include and punctuate author information for items with more than one author, or for information about shortening titles, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Elements of a Citation.

If your question is not answered by the LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

 

 

Chicago Formats/Samples: Electronic Books (N/B)

 

 

Books (Print)

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

For more information about any particular element of the citation samples, e.g., if you want to know how to include and punctuate author information for items with more than one author, or for information about shortening titles, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Elements of a Citation.

If your question is not answered by the LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

 

A Book with a Single Author

Note (Full)  Format

             Sample
             #. Author, Book Title (Publisher location: Publisher, Year), page number or range.
 
             1. Terence R. Mitchell, People in Organizations: An Introduction to Organizational Behavior (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), 55-57.

Note (Short)  Format

             Sample
             #. Author last name, Shortened book title, page number or range.
           
             1. Mitchell, People in Organizations, 56.

Bibliography  Format

             Sample

Author name inverted. Book Title. Publisher location: Publisher name, Year.

Mitchell, Terence R. People in Organizations: An Introduction to Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.

 

A Book with an Author and Editor or Translator

Note (Full)  Format

             Sample
             #. Author(s), Book Title, trans./ed. Translator or Editor Name (Publisher location: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
 
             1. Fyodor Dostoevsky, The Double: a Poem of St. Petersburg, trans. George Bird (Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1958), 199.

Note (Short)  Format

             Sample
             #. Author last name, Shortened book title, page number or range.
 
             1. Dostoevsky, The Double, 199.

Bibliography Format

             Sample
Author name inverted. Book Title. Translated /Edited by Translator/Editor Name. Publisher location: Publisher name, Year.
 
Dostoevsky, Fyodor. The Double: a Poem of St. Petersburg. Translated by George Bird. Bloomington: Indiana University
              Press, 1958.

 

A Chapter in an Edited Book

Note (Full)  Format

             Sample
             #. Chapter author, "Chapter title," in Book Title, ed. Editor Name (Publisher location: Publisher, Year), page number(s).
 
             1. Dorothy Kelly, "Writing Difference Itself," in Literature as Philosophy/Philosophy as Literature, ed. Donald G. Marshall (Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1987), 240.

Note (Short)  Format

             Sample
             #. Chapter author last name, "Chapter title," page number(s).
 
             1. Kelly, "Writing Difference Itself," 240.
Bibliography Format
             
 
Sample
Chapter author name inverted. "Chapter title." In Book Title, edited by Editor name. page range. Publisher location:
             Publisher name, Year.
 
Kelly, Dorothy. "Writing Difference Itself." In Literature as Philosophy/Philosophy as Literature, edited by Donald G. Marshall,
             240-250. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1987.

 

 

 

Websites / Webpages

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

For more information about any particular element of the citation samples, e.g., if you want to know how to include and punctuate author information for items with more than one author, or for information about shortening titles, refer to the tab in this LibGuide titled Elements of a Citation.

If your question is not answered by the LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

For a source that does have a discernable publication or revision date, CMOS asks you to include an access date.

More information and examples of Notes and Bibliography entries for Website Content are available in the CMOS Online Notes and Bibliography Style: Sample Citations for Website Content.

 

 

Chicago Manual of Style Website Content in Table Format

 

 

Miscellaneous Sources

 

Color is used in the examples below only to help you identify the elements of a citation. You should not format your citations in color.

If you need to cite a type of resource not included in this LibGuide, refer to The Chicago Manual of Style (see The Basics tab for a link to the catalog record for the CMS).

Additional information and examples related to E-mail, Text Messages, or Direct Messages sent using social media applications can be found in the Chicago Manual of Style Online section on Personal Communication.

 

 

Chicago Formats/Samples: Miscellaneous Sources (N/B)

 

 

 

 


Run In Quotations

 

A run-in quotation is one that is simply inserted within the text of your paper, enclosed by quotation marks. Use run-in quotations for short quotations; CMS considers quotations of less than 100 words as short.

 

 

Block Quotations

 

CMS considers quotations of 100 words or more as long quotations. When you quote a long passage in your paper, format it as a block quotation:

  • Start on a new line
  • Indent 1/2" from the left margin
  • Do not enclose in quotation marks

 

 

Quotations in Sample Paper

 

Chicago Style: Quotations

 

 

Spanish Language 

 

Estilo Chicago (PDF): Universidad de Alicante

 

 

 

 


Estilo Chicago 

Estilo Chicago adaptada del Manual de estilo Chicago-Deusto.

 

 

 

 

 


Printable Resources

 

How to Document Sources in Chicago Style 

(CMS 17th ed.; Notes and Bibliography)

Tarrant County College Libraries [Updated May 2018]

 

University of Manitoba Academic Learning Centre

 

 

 

Purchase CMOS

 

CMOS en Espanol: Manual de estilo Chicago-Deusto

Amazon purchase link

CMOS en Espanol: Manual de estilo Chicago-Deusto

University of Chicago Press purchase link

 

 

 

OCLS Paper Review

 

 

 

 


Would you like a second set of eyes to look at your paper?

 

OCLS Librarian will look at your paper and give you feedback on your citations, references, and other style elements.

 

Please allow two (2) business days, not including weekends for your paper review to be completed and return to you. 

 

Email your paper to OCLS directly and request a review. 

 

 


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